Time Capsule -A Research Study into Implicit Bias

Time Capsule – A Research Study into Unconscious Bias


We are conducting a research project on unconscious bias and we are looking for people across the world toparticipate.

Unconscious (implicit) bias happens because our brains make incredibly quick judgments and assessments of people and situations without us realising. Our biases are influenced by our background, cultural environment, and personal experiences. We may not be aware of these views and opinions or be aware of their full impact and implications.

Unconscious bias can influence many aspects of our lives and careers and the better our understanding of unconscious bias the more able we are to recognise and avoid it.  


The purpose of this research study is to better understand initial assumptions people may make when they first meet someone or read about them.  

These assumptions may influence the decisions we make which may affect our own and others lives, ability to collaborate, ability to work with effectively, and be successful.

Understanding our own biases and those of others, opens conversations and develops awareness.  This may, in turn, help to prevent unintentional discrimination, provide opportunities that may not have been immediately apparent and enable us to increase diversity and inclusion in the workplace. 

What you can do

Participation in this study involves about 5 minutes of your time to complete a short questionnaire. Here is a link to the questionnaire:https://forms.gle/pgD6GLhCUDAMBWms7

The data is confidential and anonymous.

If you would like to know more about this study, please contact Dr Vicki Howe and Dr. Shaaban Fundi.


Thank you


Can I count on you?

In the past week we have been able to successfully fundraise a total of $1745.

Of which $1350 will be used to sponsor 20 kids from underprivileged families at 50% cost sharing agreement.

The rest of the money $395 will be used to pay for an internet subscription ($67 per month).

We need to raise $405 to get internet subscription for the whole year ($800).

Can I count on you?

Support us here:https://gofund.me/70b4c8e5

Thank you so very much.

Reflections from Kibogoji Experiential Learning, Inc (KELI).

Good evening!

Another history-making, head-spinning week is in the books. If you’re like me, your emotions may be all over the place and so may your team’s.

Bottomline: There’s still lots of weeks of schooling left this year. That’s why reflecting on the first two weeks of schooling at KELI is crucial.

Breakfast time

What has happened: KELI opened its doors on January 11th, 2021. So far everything is going smoothly with student registration and teaching and learning.

So far: KELI has registered 47 students for its nursery program. There are over 40 students registered in our after school academic enrichment program.

Our ground keeper

Pipeline: KELI is currently creating a program for unemployed youth in our community to learn a skill that will help them to create self-employment. We will be focusing on things like motorcycle mechanics, Agribusiness, Value adding in agricultural products, IT skills, and so forth.

Computer training program

Another achievement: To support 20 students from needy families, KELI successfully fundraised $1610 through the GoFundMe platform. You can still support us here: gf.me/u/zfvad8

Near future aspirations: KELI aspire to connect students to the internet. This will be a great experience for the kids in the village to connect with other kids across the globe. Thus, we are looking for a sponsor to fund internet access for the center. Internet subscription costs Tshs 150,000 ($69) per month. The total cost for the whole year will be $800. Again you can support the kids here: gf.me/u/zfvad8

Our chef.

Thank you so very much.

A call for proposals

A Call for grant Proposals:

A philanthropist would lik be to help solve:

1) youth unemployment in rural Tanzania-outside regional centers,

2) curb unemployed youth migration into cities in Tanzania.

The philanthropist would like to give away $10,000 a year for five years to sponsor a program that would create rural youth entrepreneurship training that would lead to direct self- employment opportunities.

Youth completing the training program must be able to self-employ with a small seed capital grant.

Note: The training program must lead to youth self-employment right after graduation. Therefore, general education programs do not qualify.

Deadline: January 30th, 2021.

Send your proposals to: skfundi@hotmail.com

Update: Sponsor a child’s education for $135 per year.

Thank you so very much to all our supporters past and present. We were able to raise $1480 in the past 4 days. This money will pay half of school fees for 20 children from underprivileged families to attend our quality early education program at Kibogoji Experiential Learning, Inc.

Below are some videos of parents and their children providing a word of thanks to sponsors. The video is in Swahili. My apologies to those who don’t speak the language.

Again, I could not do this alone. This is a huge milestone and it could not be reached without your support and trust in me. I am humbled and truly appreciative of your continued support.

Your suggestions, comments, words of encouragement— keeps us going.

Please continue to support our efforts. If you have not supported yet, you still can. Here is the link: https://www.gofundme.com/f/sponsor-a-child-for-a-year-for-135-at-keli?sharetype=teams&member=7938162&utm_medium=copy_link&utm_source=customer&utm_campaign=p_na+share-sheet&rcid=d70e77ec5e1c40a69b09c39d715749c2

Shaaban Fundi , Ph.D.

Parents thanking sponsors. Moving tributes.
Parents and guardians offering thank you words to sponsors

Sponsor a child at Kibogoji Experiential Learning, Inc

Kibogoji Experiential Laerning, Inc 2021

We plan to sponsor 10 kids from low-income families to receive early childhood education at the Kibogoji Nursery School and After School Academic Enrichment Programs.

You can sponsor a child for the entire year by donating $135. We accept donations in any amount to keep the school running.

You can donate here: https://www.gofundme.com/f/sponsor-a-child-for-a-year-for-135-at-keli and here: $ShaabanKFundi

Thank you for your support.

Job Opportunity


Position: DIRECTOR  

Reports to:  KELI BOARD CHAIR 

Main purpose of the job:  

• Under the overall direction of the board play a lead role in formulating the aims, objectives of the schools and establishing the policies through which they are to be achieved  

• Responsible for the standards and curriculum of all pupils including monitoring of progress towards achievement  

• Proactively manage staff and resources  

• Take full responsibility for the day to day running of the school  

 • Carry out the professional duties of a teacher as required  

• Take responsibility for safeguarding issues as appropriate  

• Take responsibility for promoting and safeguarding the welfare of children and young people within the school  

Duties and responsibilities: Strategic Leadership (Shaping the Future)  

● In partnership with the KELI BOARD CHAIR, establish and implement an ambitious vision and ethos for the future of the school  

● Play a leading role in the strategic development and school self-evaluation planning process  

● In partnership with the Senior Leadership Team, manage school resources  

● Devise, implement and monitor action plans and other policy developments  

● Lead by example to motivate and work with others  

● In partnership with the KELI BOARD CHAIR, lead by example when implementing and managing change initiatives  

● Promote a culture of inclusion within the school community where all views are valued and taken into account Teaching & Learning and Student Well-being  

• Be an excellent role model, exemplifying a high standard of teaching and promoting high expectations for all members of the school community  

• Work with the Senior Leadership Team to raise standards through staff performance management  

• Lead the development and delivery of training and support for staff  

• Lead the development and review of all aspects of the curriculum including planning, recording and reporting, assessment for learning and the development of a creative and appropriate curriculum for all pupils (in partnership with the Head of KELI)  

• Work in partnership with the KELI BOARD CHAIR in managing the school through strategic planning, the formulation of policy and the delivery of strategy, ensuring management decisions are implemented  

• Working in partnership with the KELI BOARD CHAIR, lead the processes involved in monitoring, evaluating and challenging the quality of teaching and learning taking place throughout the school, including lesson observations to ensure consistency and quality  

• Ensure the systematic teaching of learning and life skills and recording of impact is consistently high across the school  

• Develop and review systems to ensure robust evaluation of school performance, progress data and actions to secure improvements comparable to appropriate national standards  

• Ensure, through leading by example, the active involvement of students and staff in their own learning Leading and Managing Staff-Developing Self and Others  

● Support the development of collaborative approaches to learning within the school and beyond ● Organize and support the induction of staff new to the school and those being trained within the school  

● Act as an induction coordinator and have responsibility for students on teaching practice and those undertaking work experience, as appropriate.  

● Participate as required in the selection and appointment of teaching and support staff, including overseeing the work of supply staff/trainees/volunteers in the school  

● Be an excellent role model for both staff and pupils in terms of being reflective and demonstrating a desire to improve and learn  

● Take responsibility and accountability for identified areas of leadership, including statistical analysis of pupil groups, progress data and target setting  

● Work with the KELI BOARD CHAIR to deliver an appropriate program of professional development for all staff including quality coaching and mentoring, in line with the school improvement plan and performance management  

● With the KELI BOARD CHAIR, lead the performance management process for all identified support and teaching staff Operational Management  

● Ensure the day-to-day effective organization and running of the school including the deployment of staff as appropriate  

● Lead, in partnership with the KELI BOARD CHAIR, regular reviews of all school systems to ensure the Tanzanian Education System statutory requirements are being met and improved on where appropriate  

● Ensure the effective dissemination of information, the maintenance of and ongoing improvements to agreed systems for internal communication  

● Working with KELI BOARD CHAIR, undertake key activities related to professional, personnel/HR issues, including manage HR and other leadership processes as appropriate e.g. sickness absence, disciplinary, capability  

● Ensure a consistent approach to standards of behavior, attendance and punctuality are implemented across the school  

● Be a proactive and effective leader and educator.  

● Lead, in partnership with the KELI BOARD CHAIR, and support the staff and governing body in fulfilling their responsibilities regarding the school’s performance and standards  

● Support the board chair in reporting the school’s performance to its community and partners  

● Promote and protect the health and safety welfare of pupils and staff  

● Take responsibility for promoting and safeguarding the welfare of children and young people within the school Strengthening Community  

• Work with the KELI BOARD CHAIR in developing policies and practice, which promote inclusion, equality and the extended services that the school offers  

• Develop and maintain contact with all district specialist support services as appropriate  

• Promote the positive involvement of parents/careers in school life  

• Organize and conduct meetings where appropriate with parents and careers to ensure positive outcomes for all parties  

• Strengthen partnership with the community  

• Promote positive relationships and work with colleagues in other schools and external agencies • Work with the KELI BOARD CHAIR to promote and market KELI 


  • Free accommodation 
  • Salary: bring own salary based on enrollment and performance. 
  • Free motorcycle transportation 


KELI is a registered CBO in Turiani, Morogoro. It has a license to operate an early childhood program at its premises. Currently, there are two classrooms with the potential to accommodate 60 kindergarten students and an opportunity to run after school programs for kids attending primary and secondary schools in the area. KELI is looking to hire preferably a single mother with background and certification in early childhood education. 

Interested parties should submit a CV, cover letter, financial proposal and samples of previous relevant assignments (up to two). In addition, the application should include a narrative proposal (maximum three pages) of a unit plan for kindergarten and a two-week plan for a mixed age and mixed level after school experiential learning program for students.  

These should be sent to the following address no later than midnight on 14th, October 2020: skfundi@hotmail.com 

Why are rich out convincing poor people to go to work in America?

A case can be made that the overall economy is also very important and destruction of it will also be damaging to workers’ health. But that’s not what is motivating these return to work calls.

The rich are worried that a precedent is being established that the government will pay people to not work, that we can be bailed out, just like they are when something goes wrong.

And when workers won’t work, rich people start losing money.

The rich have seen their investments value decline and will continue to do so. As such they are worried and lobbying to protect their wealth. Corporate bail outs are quick and long term. Consequences are for the next CEO (to get bailed out), investing in people takes time. Failure removes their bonuses and incentives.

The whole US corporate governance structure actively incentiveses this behaviour.

They may even think they are “entitled” to the fruits of our labor, and they are being treated unfairly. In their view, if a few thousand, or perhaps tens of thousands die while maintaining the status quo, well that’s good for the country, because it’s good for them.

The first ever exchange program between a school in Tanzania and a school in the United States.

Glad to have initiated the first ever student exchange program between a school in Tanzania and a school in the United States. Today, December 4th, 2019–students and their teachers from White Lake High School will start a two week journey of intensive academic and cultural exchange program at Centennial High School in Atlanta, Georgia.

Students will spend time in an America high school, visits the Georgia Aquarium, the Civil Rights Museums, Coca Cola, and the CNN canter. In addition, the Tanzanian students will have the opportunity to meet and learn more about international diplomacy from ambassador Andrew Young. Furthermore, the students will guests at the Historical Ebenezer Church–the church where Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, was a co-pastor.

This is truly historical.

Tanzania and United States Student academic and Cultural Exchange Program.

The first group of high schoolers from Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania 🇹🇿 are on the flight right now for their international academic and cultural exchange program in Atlanta, USA.

If you believe your school in Tanzania🇹🇿, Kenya, Uganda, and Botswana will benefit from this international exposure—reach out to Kibogoji Experiential Learning Inc (678-446-0320) or edtreks(770-356-5874) for more information.

Building Student Leadership Through International Experiences.

Mvomero District Education Officials Visiting Kibogoji Experiential Learning Inc

Today KELI made another milestone in improving access and quality education in rural Tanzania. Our main goal as an organization is bridge the technological and academic outcome gap that exists between rural and urban schools in Tanzania.

See the pictures from the visit below:

KELI’s Online and Offline EdServices

#1: KELI Online and Offline Services

#Do you know your child’s level in Math, Science, and English or any other subject?

Shouldn’t she or he be on tract?

Unfortunately many of our beautiful children are not on track academically.

That’s where KELI comes in. Our customized and individualized online and offline services can fill any academic gaps your child is experiencing.

Our focus is on the pre-primary and primary school education. We believe a stronger academic foundation is the key for success in schools and life.

Here is our plan:

1. We will give your child a diagnostic test so she or he knows exactly where s/he stands.

If s/he is deficient in any of the core subjects, we will provide him or her with the appropriate resources and help to close the gap through a customized and individualized intervention education program.

2. Enroll your child in our online or offline K-7 enrichment education program – self driven ( all subjects K- 7).

In addition, We Advocate for your special need child as well for better learning environment and outcome.

#Will help your child close the gap in any subject.

3. At a small fee, Will will prepare your child to take competency tests such as SATs and ACTs required for most Colleges in the United States.

Our Work is to Prepare your child Close their academic Gaps in any Subject.

Ask Us How by emailing to sfundi1@gmail.com

Kibogoji Experiential Learning, Inc (KELI) Update 2018

There is a Swahili saying that says, “Ndo Ndo Ndo, Si Chururu.” The saying can be translated into English as, “Drip Drip, Fills the Bucket.” That is exactly what has happened at KELI. KELI started two years ago with 25 students in the backroom of my mom’s house. It was a simple gesture to help kids in my community get a library stocked with reading and technological resources aimed at bridging instructional and technological gap that exists between rural and urban schools in Tanzania.




It was a small project.

I had no idea how important it would be?

Or, how useful it would become?

Since KELI’s opening in January of 2016, the project has reached over 1000 kids in its after-school academic enrichment programs, in the tutorial help for math, English and computer skills development program, and through its experiential learning field trips to various businesses and government organization in the area.

The experiences have been truly wonderful and positive for the children.



Because of the successes we have had. The demand for the program has increased exponentially. The center became too small to accommodate all the children interested in our programming. Thus, I made a decision to grow, increase space and capacity to accommodate a greater number of children in the community.

In November of 2017, KELI’s expansion started.


At the moment, thanks to our generous supporters such as yourself, we have been able to complete two classrooms, a toilet, and a teachers’ office. By understanding the role play, plays in learning, KELI wishes to construct a state of the art playground at the center. We hope you will partner with us to make this dream of ours a reality. We currently need $1500 to have the playground constructed and installed. We hope you will support our vision by donating to this cause.

So far, we have raised $350 on Facebook and $55 on GoFundMe page.

Below are some pictures showing the progress we have made constructing the main building (two classrooms and teachers office) and toilets. We hope you will be so kind to help us reach the $1500 goal for a playground.





To support this project, please click here

Analyzing Mv. Spice Islander’s Investigation Report in Light of the Mv. Nyerere Ferry Sinking in Mwanza Region of Tanzania.

According to the report, “MV Spice Islander” had a maximum human loading capacity of 600 passengers. However, at the time of its sinking, it was carrying 2470 passengers. That is four times the maximum allowed. Further reports says, 941 passengers survived, 203 passengers lost their lives and 1326 passengers are still missing. I’m saddened by the magnitude of human loss.

The report further states, the cause of the accident was “severe levels of negligence.” Nine (9) people have been arraigned in connection to the accident. The dead and survivors of this accident will be compensated at a rate of Tshs 125,000 for 80 months which is equivalent to Tshs 10,000,000 per person.

The suggested figure is what I have issues with.  I feel like the figures are too low and will not work as a deterrent for future man-made accidents. My understanding is that human life is priceless. To save it, stiffer penalties must be imposed as a deterrent.

My questions are:

  1. Why payments are based on the basic salary levels?
  2. What made the commission to assume that all these people were going to die in the next 6 years and a half (80 months)?
  3. Why not use established income earning potentials for each of the passengers and life expectancy figures to figure out the payment?

This was an opportunity to severely punish those involved so that it will be a lesson to them and for others currently benefiting from this kind of behavior. Don’t let this incident be another missed opportunity like MV Bukoba. This should be a wake up call to shipowners, bus owners, and everyone involved in the transportation business. They needs to understand that “if you cause an accident due to negligence” leading to a loss or loss of lives; severe consequences will follow. The “kazi ya mungu” excuse should not be be the norm.

Once a person purchase a ticket, it’s a contractual agreement between the two parties and that the latter will transport the former safely from point A to point B. These contracts need to be honored. Maybe in the future (“that means now”) the government could implement a system that forces bus, ship and any kind of transportation business owners to declare the insurance value of a passenger and luggage on the back of the ticket in case an accident happens.

My belief is that if the owners are subjected to stiff penalties whenever accidents happens and are starting to see that their profits are being eroded; they will make sure that accidents due to negligence will not be a daily occurrences in Tanzania. To make them change their minds and put safety measures before profit, you have to hit them where it matters most—profits.

In addition to a deterrence on the part of the ship, buses, and any-other type of transportation owners. Citizen awareness campaign regarding overcrowding in public transportation needs to be carried out. It seems people are not learning from these incidence. More campaigns on road safety and problems associated with overcrowding are severely needed.

I will end you with this, “the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over while expecting a different outcome.”

The Killing shall continue……..

Volunteering Opportunity at Kibogoji Experiential Learning, Inc (K.E.L.I.)



Who Are We?

Kibogoji Experiential Learning, Inc (KELI) is registered Not For Profit Organization in Tanzania. Its mission is to bridge technological and instructional quality gap between urban and rural students of all levels in Tanzania.


Turiani, Mvomero District, Morogoro Region


1 – 12 months

Volunteer project:

The project is organized in support of our pre-school and after school education enrichment programs. Kibogoji Experiential Learning, Inc (KELI) promotes early childhood education and Universal Primary Education. The increase in enrollment has increased the load to our staff and other workers to deliver quality services to the children. We currently serve a population of more than 100 children with only three teachers.

Volunteers are needed for teaching, training teachers, and in our outreach programs. We hope our volunteer will also help in fundraising and grant writing to secure more funding. Therefore, if you have passion for children, have worked in fundraising and are a successful grant writer, we welcome you at KELI.

Project theme:

Improving school learning environment and quality education.


English and Kiswahili.

Duration of the project:

1 to 12 months. The program is running throughout the year with vacation breaks in June and December.


Kibogoji Experiential Learning, Inc (KELI) will provide accommodation for the duration of your stay. You will be given separate living quarter with own private entry. There is shared fridge, microwave, flat tv, and a range oven (GAS AND ELECTRIC COMBO).


Turiani, Mvomero District, in Morogoro Region.

Age range:

5 – 19 years old.

Participation fee:


Extra fee:

$450 for 1 month; $650 for 2-3 months; $950 for 3-6 months; $1200 for 6-9 months; $1500 for 9-12 months

The extra fee is intended to support the local host. It is due upon arrival.

Contact Us: sfundi1@yahoo.com

Should children be the most important thing in your family?

Author: John Rosemond.

I was having difficulties reading it from the photo so I re-posted it as a comment. It’s worth the read.

I recently asked a married couple who have three kids, none of whom are yet teens, “Who are the most important people in your family?”

Like all good moms and dads of this brave new millennium, they answered, “Our kids!”

“Why?” I then asked. “What is it about your kids that gives them that status?” And like all good moms and dads of this brave new millennium, they couldn’t answer the question other than to fumble with appeals to emotion.

So, I answered the question for them: “There is no reasonable thing that gives your children that status.”

I went on to point out that many if not most of the problems they’re having with their kids — typical stuff, these days — are the result of treating their children as if they, their marriage, and their family exist because of the kids when it is, in fact, the other way around. Their kids exist because of them and their marriage and thrive because they have created a stable family.

Furthermore, without them, their kids wouldn’t eat well, have the nice clothing they wear, live in the nice home in which they live, enjoy the great vacations they enjoy, and so on. Instead of lives that are relatively carefree (despite the drama to the contrary that they occasionally manufacture), their children would be living lives full of worry and want.

This issue is really the heart of the matter. People my age know it’s the heart of the matter because when we were kids it was clear to us that our parents were the most important people in our families. And that, right there, is why we respected our parents and that, right there, is why we looked up to adults in general. Yes, Virginia, once upon a time in the United States of America, children were second-class citizens, to their advantage.

It was also clear to us — I speak, of course, in general terms, albeit accurate — that our parents’ marriages were more important to them than their relationships with us. Therefore, we did not sleep in their beds or interrupt their conversations. The family meal, at home, was regarded as more important than after-school activities. Mom and Dad talked more — a lot more — with one another than they talked with you. For lack of pedestals, we emancipated earlier and much more successfully than have children since.

The most important person in an army is the general. The most important person in a corporation is the CEO. The most important person in a classroom is the teacher. And the most important person in a family are the parents.

The most important thing about children is the need to prepare them properly for responsible citizenship. The primary objective should not be raising a straight-A student who excels at three sports, earns a spot on the Olympic swim team, goes to an A-list university and becomes a prominent brain surgeon. The primary objective is to raise a child such that community and culture are strengthened.

“Our child is the most important person in our family” is the first step toward raising a child who feels entitled.

You don’t want that. Unbeknownst to your child, he doesn’t need that. And neither does America.

-John Rosemond

Fundraising for Kibogoji Experiential Learning Center

Hello Kibogoji Family,

Last year I opened up a one roomed after school program for kids in a small town I grew up in in Tanzania. Kibogoji Experiential Learning Center is an innovative education center that seek to bridge instructional and technology gap between rural and urban schools in Tanzania.


The main focus of the center is to improve early childhood access and after School enrichment programs for primary school aged students. The center opened its doors in January 2017 with 25 students in a one roomed classroom. However, due to high demand for our early childhood and after school enrichment education programs, we currently have 120 registered students. Thus, our  one roomed classroom space is very limited and we would like to expand soonest to reach more kids.


We currently need:

$3200 to finish constructing our new two classroom building with a teachers’ office.

$1200 to construct bathrooms. $2500 to create child friendly environment for the students including swings, slides, and a field for sports.

$650 for chairs and desks for the two classrooms. Your donation is highly appreciated and we thank you for your support.


Please donate to support this initiative by going here: https://www.gofundme.com/kibogoji-experiential-learning-fund


At Kibogoji Experiential Learning Center we live our lives believing that, “it is easier to build strong children than repairing broken men.” We hope you will support us in this endevour.

Here are links to our website and Facebook pages. https://kibogoji.com/kibogoji-educational-resources/

Facebook page is found here: https://www.facebook.com/kibogojiexperientiallearningcenter/


Thank you so much for your support.
Shaaban Fundi, Ph.D.


Shaaban K Fundi, M.S., M.A., Ph.D.

Founder and Managing Director

Kibogoji Experiential Learning Center

P.O. BoX 13

Turiani, Morogoro


My Book: “Education System in Tanzania” will be out in February, 2020.

Kibogoji Readers,

This is to let my readers and fun know that my book entitle ”


History, Policy Reforms, Education Ideologies, Evaluation and Assessment, and Research-Based Recommendations for Improving Student Achievement.

will be out this coming February, 2020. Please keep yours eyes here to be the first to hear when the book comes out. Once, the book is out all excerpts and reference on the chapters in the book will be removed from this website.

All proceeds from book sales will be used solely to expand my work in Turiani, Morogoro, Tanzania. Kibogoji Experiential Learning Center provides early childhood education and after school enrichment programs for children in Turiani, Morogoro. In addition, the center provide access to technology enhanced learning and a library where parents and kids can access books (both academic and novels).




Furthermore, if you would like to donate to our work, please do so by clicking here or by going to the Kibogoji Experiential Learning Center, Inc page in this website. Once there, click the donate button. YOUR DONATIONS will receive a tax exempt receit.

Thank you all,


The Tanzania Citizenship  Act of 1995 and Its Contradictions with Dual Citizenship for the Diaspora


Per the Citizenship Act of 1995, persons who were citizens of either the Republic of Tanganyika or the People’s Republic of Zanzibar shall be deemed to have become citizens of the Republic of Tanzania effective from Union Day, April 26th of 1964. The 1995 Citizenship ACT does not allows dual citizenship. It does not allow women to pass their citizenship rights to their foreign born husbands and/or children from such marriages. The Act, however, sets forth requirements for citizenship and legal procedures for becoming a Tanzania citizen through naturalization. This article provide the historical anecdote that lead to Tanzania adopting a citizenship act that does not allow its citizens to carry multiple passports. It refutes the philosophical argument that dual citizenship is a threat to national security and identity. Furthermore, the article offers a counter argument for why Tanzania should provide dual citizenship for its diaspora. Such an act will benefit both the country and its citizens abroad.


The concept of citizenship in Tanzania is rooted within the perception of national security and identity (Dahlin & Hironaka, 2008). Dahlin and Hironaka (2008, p58) argues that strict citizenship laws based on ethno-cultural boundaries and restrictive nationalist identities are good for a young developing country. The Citizenship Act of 1995 took this philosophical position allegedly in defense of and to safeguard the country’s identity and security. The idea behind this philosophical thinking is that, dual nationality tends to corrupt the cultural identity of a country and thus, making national security difficult to secure.

Ten years prior to the 1995 Citizenship Act, the country (Tanzania) took bold and forward looking steps in introducing the 1984 Constitution Amendments in which some fundamental principles of human rights and/or rights of citizens were granted. The 1984 Constitutional Amendments was arguably the most forward looking Constitutional Amendment in Tanzania’s short history, as it allowed broad human rights provisions to its citizens.  The 1995 Citizenship Act, however, was a  step backward and came with more restrictive and discriminatory clauses that exclusively prohibited dual citizenship and the rights of women married to foreigners and the rights of all Tanzania by birth citizens living abroad.

James Sapali (2015, p56) argues that the 1995 Citizenship Act was motivated by a perceived threat to national identity and security based on the political, economic, and geographical context at the time. The mid-1980s and early 1990s, were the toughest times economically for Tanzania. Because of these realities, The Citizenship Act of 1995 was made to be more exclusive and discriminatory. It purported to protect the county’s perceived national identity and security threats presented by the changes in the demographics, political, and economical situations. Arguably, the Citizenship Act of 1995 was made purposely to target and exclude some individuals and particularly Asian-Tanzanians who were perceived as outsiders and/or foreigners who posed threat to the country’s economy, and thus, its identity and national security. In addition, the Act was made to be very discriminatory against women. In the 1995 Citizenship ACT women are not allowed to pass their citizenship rights to husbands of foreign origin and children born to those marriages. This was made explicitly so that to discourage people (male) from foreign country to marry Tanzanians and thus, acquiring citizenship rights through marriage. On the contrary, this patriarchal and male dominated Citizenship Act, allowed for male citizenship’s rights to be passed on to their foreign-born wives and their children.  In addition, the 1995 ACT strongly prohibits dual citizenship for a mere reason based on a perceived lack of loyalty from those gaining citizenships in foreign countries. No real or perceived threats have demonstrably been found to support this philosophical position.

Flaws in the National Security and Identity Argument

The premise that Tanzanians who acquire citizenships in other countries are threats to national security and national identity is flawed. First, most Tanzanian citizens and Tanzanian by birth have a stake in the development of Tanzania. This is evident by the tireless work they do to attract investment to Tanzania, to invest in Tanzania, and through many collaborative work and programs they engage in to develop the wellbeing of Tanzania and their fellow-citizens. Secondly, majority of Tanzanians and Tanzanian by birth who resides in foreign countries send huge amount of remittances each year back into the country. It is estimated that in the year 2015 alone, Tanzanians in the diaspora sent a total $750 millions to Tanzania (World Bank, 2015). This amount is larger than the amount of foreign currency the country received from its sales of cotton, coffee, tea, flowers, cloves, and sisal combined, in the same year (Zitto, Kabwe, Personal Communication). Yet, the $750 million remittance amount stated in the World Bank report is the lower threshold of the total remittance the country receives. Other, sources believe, Tanzania received an upward of $850 million in 2015 through remittances sent via Hawala. The $850 million figure is larger than what the country receives from the Millennium Corporate Challenge (MCC Funds). In 2013 MCC provided Tanzania with $698.1 million (Millennium Corporate Challenge, 2013). The discrepancy in remittance reporting is because the country lack a reliable method of tracking remittance entering the country from its diaspora.

These examples demonstrate the flaws in the thinking that provided the framework for the 1995 Citizenship Act. The thought that national security and identity cannot be properly secured, if, and when, a citizen of Tanzania acquires citizenship in a foreign land is not supported by facts. In addition, stripping women’s citizenship rights based on who they happen to marry is in violation of equal treatment rights. Foreign husbands and their children should be afforded the same rights as their male counterparts.

Furthermore, there are six countries in the East African Community. Three of the six countries in the East African Community allow dual citizenships for their citizens. Apparently, there has never been a national security threat nor national identity erosion in these three member states since they allowed dual citizenship. The claim that dual citizenship is a threat to national security and national identity is baseless and is an argument devoid of factual evidence. Currently, there are 71 countries worldwide that allows dual citizenship in some shape or form. The benefits of Dual Citizenship are self evident in countries such as Israel, Nigeria, India, Brazil, and China.

Nine Reasons for Dual Citizenship in Tanzania

Most of us advocate for dual citizenship because of our love for Tanzania, albeit poor and struggling. Most of us a driven by our patriotic duty to our country of origin. For the same reason, we write commentaries, participate in social media forums and other channels. We love Tanzania and want to see the nation progress from poverty to prosperity.

The adoption of the New Constitution may be justified for the following reasons:

First, dual citizens can receive the benefits and privileges offered by each country. For example, they have access to two social service systems, can vote in either country and may be able to run for office in either country (depending on each country’s laws). They are also allowed to work in either country without needing a work permit or visa and can attend school in either country at the citizen tuition rate (Jean Folger).

Why is this important to a Developing World countries like Tanzania?

Tanzania is still grappling with an undeveloped education system. For the most part its teachers are inadequately trained, the facilities are either dilapidated or not there, and generally, educational standards are below the standards of those of the developed nations, like Canada or the USA. It is not being at variance to argue that leaders trained and who actually lived in the developed educational background will have more to give in terms of leadership, value and ideas. They may also be able to live out what has worked abroad. Because they have the experience of living successfully in those nations.

Second, being trained abroad and living abroad are not the same things, therefore, only those who live abroad will have a sustained impact on the politics and economics of the poor nations. Take as an example a person who spends five years in college or university abroad. This person will perhaps be on a VISA or some sort of Study Permit has limited access to resources and in most cases, will have limited mobility. When this person returns home, other than what they learned through “osmosis,” they have nothing more than classroom experience of the developed countries thought. In short, though trained abroad, these “Western educated Africans” will still be African-minded in terms of policing and programming. It is not that African education is not adequate to develop Africa; it is a truism that most of what is in Africa is either imported from the developed countries or has their blessings. Talk of books, technology, leadership paradigms, even the sources of money used in Africa, these for the most part, come or have been borrowed from the rich countries. In recent past, Tanzanian politicians have gone and died abroad. It cannot be because Tanzania has no medical facilities; it is because Tanzanians know, implicitly or explicitly, that better medical facilities are still found abroad.

Third, and as an addendum to three above, “Foreign-educated leaders attract more FDI to their country. Our rationale is that education obtained abroad encompasses a whole slew of factors that can make a difference in FDI flows when this foreign-educated individual becomes a leader” (Constant and Tien, 2010). FDI or foreign direct investment is a much needed currency in Tanzania’s quest to wean itself from the aura of central government. However, and even more importantly, foreign companies and governments may trust those who got their education and business experience from abroad and even more those who lived and worked abroad. If a president is one who lived and worked abroad, you can imagine the level of trust in his/her government. It is also important to emphasize that citizens who have lived abroad may, comparatively, be less corrupt, less dictatorial, less autocratic, less dishonest, and more democratic and fair in their approach to governance. The reason is simple, because they lived and absorbed those values which most developed countries subscribe to.

Fourth, the idea of “Brain Earn” comes to light. Remember in the late 1980s and early 1990s when the concept of “brain drain” was rife on the political tongue! Now, the idea of brain drain is becoming obsolete and more so with increased global economic integration in place. Relocation or immigration does not drain brains anymore, it empowers brains. In other words, training or living in another country shapes your brain to infinite possibilities in terms of economic modelling, political idealization or social industry. A leader who has spent ten years squarely in Africa will be less industrious, less innovative, and less dexterous than another who lived or worked abroad, especially in the developed country! This is the same reason why developed governments appoint leaders who have lived in Africa to head undertakings whose mission involve Africa.

fifth, a dual citizen can own property in either country. This benefits both countries, but especially the poor country. The reason is simple, some countries restrict land ownership to citizens only and land or property is a genuine investment. Imagine more Tanzanians owning property, land and businesses abroad! Imagine what this will do to promoting the Tanzanian brands, connecting local businesses to the developed ones and generally putting Tanzania on the map as has been the case for Israel, Nigeria or India! And this is not new, major corporations from the developed countries do own lands and properties and businesses in Africa. They can relocate interests based on the viability of the enterprise or enabling economic environment in either country. This benefit is self-assertive.

Sixth, dual citizenship informs cultural education. “Having dual citizenship gives you the chance to educate others about the culture and people of two different countries. Governments may like dual citizenship because it helps to promote a country’s image and culture abroad. If you have two passports, you may have more access to the world” (Kate Bradley). Even more, it enhances tourism and promotes a healthy image abroad. Consider the Jews and the impact they have had in the USA, Canada, and UK! Consider the Nigerians, Jamaicans and to some extent, Indians! All these nationals have made their birth countries powerful abroad. In international parlance, that means economic boom and political propagation of their originating countries.

Seventh, dual citizenship entails easy of travel. If you are a dual citizen, you enjoy the protection of two governments even when you are traveling. If you encounter problems on the trip, you can appeal to one or both governments’ embassies. “When asked for identification during international travels, you can supply the passport that is least likely to raise eyebrows or cause problems among officials. You can also travel to both countries as a native citizen, avoiding the lengthy airport queues and questioning about your purposes” (Kate Bradley). This is self-explanatory.

Eighth, dual citizenship promotes increased security awareness. To a dual citizen, one country may be a homeland but the other is very much a new home. Immediately this will cause them to fully experience and embrace the ideals of both countries. Dual citizens will more likely than mono-citizens promote peace and order in both countries because of dual security interests in both. They will also be more sensitive to issues of war, terrorism and treason. This is the very opposite of the fears most people have of dual citizenship. Dual citizens, by design, are incapable of compromising the security secrets of both countries. They will likely defend both interests with equal strength. Their own safety depends on it.

Ninth, one question that cannot be avoided now is: Where is the world going? The world is trekking towards more integration, globalization, and outsourcing of important jobs and ideas. Rather than being individuals, nationals are tending to be more world citizens. The Internet is drawing all of us together; Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and various social media are drawing us towards one identity. Although no nation should sacrifice its sovereignty for integration, it is vital to understanding that socio-political dynamics are calling on us to unite more, cooperate more and share more equitably the world’s diminishing and scarce resources. In light of this, duality of citizenship will not be much to ask for. The only caveat under this clarion is that no-one nation should take advantage of another in economic and security terms. Done properly and lawfully, both countries stand to benefit from dual citizenship.


For Tanzania, the move to dual-nationality is a move in the right direction. President John Pombe Magufuli would be doing the best investment of his presidency for spearheading the process to  adopt the New Constitutional. The Tanzanian parliamentarians need to push for a revival of the New Constitution Bill. The issue of dual citizenship is not for the benefit of the Tanzania diaspora alone, it is for the benefit of the country. It is not Canada or the USA or wherever countries Tanzanian citizens resides which stands to benefit, it is Tanzania. Tanzania will not make economic, political or social progress unless one of its sons or daughters who has been educated, worked and lived abroad (especially in a developed country) is allowed to participate uninfringed politically, economically, and socially in the development of Tanzania.



Kibogoji Experiential Learning Center: Update!

Kibogoji Experiential Learning Center is housed in a one and a half roomed house near the police post in Turiani, Morogoro. Currently the center has over 800 different types of books icluding children’s books, adult books, and youth books. The books are mostly in English. In addition to English book, Kibogoji was able to secure over 50 books from the Tanzania Publishing House (TPB). These additional books are mainly in Kiswahili and a few of them are bilingual (Swahili and English).

Kibogoji understand that childrens in our village are academically struggling especially in Math, English, and Swahili. Thus, the center’s short-term goal is to improve reading, writing, and arithmetic skills for children in our neighborhood. In addition, the center emphasize the use of technology in learning. Currently, Kibogoji has 10 laptops and one desktop computer for technology infused learning. Kibogoji also believes that books are a window to the unknown world. Thus, reading different books and especially books from other cultures will not only expose our children to the world far from theirs, but, also will improve their literacy and arithmetic comprehension skills.

Thus, a book reading, writing, and math after school refresher program is currently being implemented at the center. This intensive reading, writing, and arithmetic program started January, 2017. Through this program we will be able to close the gap in math, reading, and writing in our rural community.

Kibogoji uses both formative and summative assessment tools to measure the effectiveness of our after school program. In particular, pre-and post-test assessment tools are used to measure growth and goal attainment. The assessment tools designed to assess the effectiveness of this program are rigorous, scientifically designed, research based, and evidence based. In addition, assessment during learning, rapid response systems, and ongoing re-teaching strategies are all being used throughout the six months period to make sure all children are learning at the highest levels.

As we embark on this journey to help all kids have access to quality education. Kibogoji hopes, all well-wishers will support our efforts. We believe in the “It takes a Village to Raise a Child Concept.” With this in mind, we are looking forward to 2017 to be a great year in ensuring access to quality education for all children. Be part of our effort by contributing here: donate.

Furthermore, at Kibogoji  Experiential Learning Center, we believe that “Building Stronger Children is Easier than Repairing Brocken Men.” Therefore, to create a just society we must build stronger children and equip them with sellable skills. As we are settling in in the 21st century, skills that would be highly needed in any profession includes: great presentation skills, writing skills, math skills, and information technology skills. Thus, these are the core competences we are intending to build for the children of Turiani at the Kibogoji Center. To read more about our initive click this link here: kibogojibrochure-doc