Asma in Minnesota: Attacked For Speaking Swahili at Apple-bees’ Restaurant

To Donate to Asma: Click here

6691073_1446751288.9556_updatesHello Folks,

I have been working in Human Rights issues for many years. Never in my life would I imagine having someone close to me become a victim of a hate crime.

On Friday October 30th 2015, Asma along with her friends and their children were dining at Applebees In Coon Rapids, MN. Another patron sitting in another booth overheard her speaking in a foreign language.  She yelled and insulted Asma for not speaking “American”. The patron eventually threw a drink at her and smashed Asma’s face with a beer mug.

Asma suffered trauma all over her face due to this attack. Her injuries required 15 stitches all over her face with busted lips, cut on top of her eye brow and cuts all over her face.


Asma is currently going through care dealing with her injuries. Any donation received will go directly to her well being.

I know in my heart that Minnesota is not defined by this incident.

Let us stand together against hate and help Asma get back to her feet again.

Thank you so much for your help and we are asking you to share this page with everyone that you know.

Friends of Asma

Tanzania Election 2015: Your Vote Matters.

I am disappointed about the fact that I am in fact disappointed. You may ask: Why am I disappointed? I am disappointed because my beloved Tanzania is falling into the normal trap of the prevailing understanding—‘’each for oneself and God for us all”.  

This Western philosophy is already failing many in the West. My predictions are that if it hasn’t failed many in Tanzania already, sooner than later it will. The gap between the rich the the poor will astronomically increase. The results of which will be catastrophic levels of unrest for the ones outside the circles of influence which may destabilizes the peaceful nature of Tanzania. 


The political establishments have the opportunity to change this fact. However, there is a conundrum in the modern politicking in Tanzania. Three factors contributes to this conundrum: One, political positions have become so expensive such that it is inaccessible for the common man with a common sense to access it. It is only accessible to those who have the means to purchase it and/or bloodlines connecting them to the current politicians.  Two, the sad thing is, most of the African modern politicians were born in conditions of want, lived on the edge of needs, survived in dog-eat-dog world, are unable to restrain their ego, and have the highest desire for the lime-lights. These realities brings forth the Third  factor, the ignorance in understanding the basics of a generally good structure called the commons. Which is the foundation of good society.

In Africa and Tanzania in particular, many people still live and largely observe the laws of the common. That is everything is ours and not mine.  That is how the family structure is built. That is how the village structure is built. However, the commons are not common anymore. The commons are now largely owned by the few. Politicians, relatives, and their friends. Thus, the commons cannot save the majority. As the saying goes “owned by the few will only save the few”.  The many who actually own the commons are left to struggle in this man-made abject poverty. And that, disgust me.

In Tanzania for example: hospitals, schools, clean drinking water supply, electricity, the police force and all the essentials services of the majority are short-handed. No medicine, no teachers, no running water, no electricity, and no supplies at our policing centers. However, there is always money for the chosen few to indulge in the wealth of the commons. Another instance is the Members of Parliament who saves themselves rather than serving those who put them in office. We have become worshipers of our rulers rather than the rulers worshiping us for entrusting them with our resources. This has to change. It starts with the constitution. A new constitution that will put its people first and not the other way around.

Stop Albino Killings in Tanzania. Spread the Word!

Stop Albino Killings in Tanzania. Spread the Word!

The current situation for the sick among us is atrocious. There is saying that goes like “A society is judged by how it treats the less fortunate among it”. Tanzania treats the less fortunate horribly. Look at how we treat our elderly, our albinos, and all the less fortunate among us. The rulers and the connected receive first class medical attention. If you don’t believe me, wait until one among them or their family member needs critical medical attention to which there is none in the state referral hospitals. Then, there will be money to fly them to South Africa, India, Europe or the United States. Where they pay in cash for the medical procedures necessary to save their lives. Off course, not with their money. They pay with the commons’ money. Your tax money. We, ourselves have allowed them to write these benefits into their contracts. These types of loopholes create no incentives for the rulers to find solutions to improve health care for the commons and the well-being of its people.

On top of that, the rulers travel excessively in the name of the commons. Using our poverty numbers and statistics to borrow money in our names. Not for us, but for themselves. To them, our poverty is the necessary evil. Our poverty is a necessity to borrow from the IMF and the other rich countries around the world. Without us being poor, there will be no reason and/or collateral for the borrowing. Hence, we are kept poor through BAD policies so that the borrowing and begging can and will continues. Unless the culture is changed…we will continue to be victims of our own making.

Tanzanians. You do have a voice and a chance to rectify the situation. Your voice can change all this man-made-poverty.

Vote with this in mind.

Anyhow, It is your country. Do as you please!

Mimi Sio Mpiga Kura

Who Cares About the Tanzanian Elections? You Should!


While the world watches in horror as refugees from war torn areas of the Middle East and Africa attempt to flee to safety, a democratic earthquake is about to shake up the region that will have positive implications for Africa and the world. Tanzania, an East African country with the largest coastal port on the Indian Ocean and one trillion cubic feet of natural gas in its territorial waters, might very well elect the first opposition candidate as President in its fifty plus years of independence from Great Britain.

Much like Israel in 1977, when Menachem Begin’s Likud trounced the only ruling party the country knew, Tanzania’s Chadema Party, led by charismatic former prime minister Edward Lowassa, seems poised to oust the ruling party CCM and its presidential candidate, Dr. John Pombe Magufuli.

This being Africa, the incumbent party is not beyond resorting to dirty tricks to try and stem the opposition from making inroads. Opposition campaign volunteers have been arrested under such trumped up charges as staging illegal demonstrations. Others are being detained under the Cyber Security Law, ostensibly enacted to prevent criticism of the government. Permits have been denied to the opposition for campaign rallies. Yet all that has not stopped tens of thousands of supporters to show up in support of Lowassa, as he often takes public transportation to campaign.

Lowassa is no populist. He defected from the ruling CCM to run the opposition. He is a successful affluent businessman and a Christian in a country that is at least half Muslim and still relatively poor. His term as Prime Minister ended when he was scapegoated in a corruption scandal, his popularity only seemed to rise as he kept his seat in Parliament with dignity.

I have a business in Tanzania and have spent a lot of time there so I know the country well. The energy and buzz Lowassa’s campaign is generating is unlikely in a country used to the ascension of compliant technocrats selected by ruling party bosses. President Obama recently chided African leaders for holding on to power way beyond their expiration date. In Tanzania, transition of power is a regular occurrence every decade or so, even if to another ruling party hack. This time, it’s different and it will affect the geopolitical landscape for years to come. Here’s why.

Corruption is endemic throughout Africa and Tanzania is no exception. Though some high level officials have been caught, prosecuted and jailed for their malfeasance, graft is more a problem on the lower levels of government where low paid bureaucrats or traffic police supplement their living with small payoffs. Tanzania is a vibrant democracy with an independent judiciary; thus, high level corruption pales in comparison to, say, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Nonetheless, the population has a sense that change is needed on the top and not in the form of a different face on the same body.

Some argue that Lowassa comes from that same body and he’s no different from the rest. They are wrong. Lowassa sees a chance for one of the world’s fastest growing economies, rich in natural resources with a driven, hard working and hard partying population to emerge as a leader in Africa and be a force of good in the world. This is only achievable through a complete overhaul of a tired system.

This particular election is important to the West for a few crucial reasons. A transition of power from one party to another is so rare in Africa that when it happened in Nigeria, it was in the headlines for weeks. The election of a Christian in a country with such a large Muslim population (outgoing President JK Kikwete is Muslim) will prove to the world that democracy is compatible with Islam. A crackdown on corruption and further financial reforms desperately needed in Tanzania is usually achieved only through a change in power. Finally, the greatest proof of stability is the peaceful transition of power and right now Tanzanians seem to hunger for change with stability.

Lowassa is a known quantity and he’s built a coalition of opposition. No matter the outcome, October 25th 2015 will be a historic day. It is sure to be the closest election in African history. We need to hope for fair and transparent elections so that the winner is not a specific candidate or party but Tanzania, Africa and world stability.

Juliet Asante: Why Education Prepares Us to Fail

About five years ago, I made a decision to spend more time outside my home country. A number of things had culminated into this decision. Feeling burnt out and alarmed, I packed my bags and with my daughter, took a sabbatical so to speak.

My predominant feeling at the time was despair. I was a misfit. I felt misunderstood and targeted; and then something monumental happened. On my last night in my home, an email from the Harvard Kennedy School informed me of my acceptance. Unable to carry my suddenly dead weight, my knees crumbled, as warm, salty tasting drops trickled down to trembling lips. I whispered again and again ‘Lord, I am not stupid, lord, I am not stupid’… for by this time, circumstances had conspired to have me questioning my sanity.

A strong believer in the value of a good education, my daughter attended a prestigious school. She and myself interacted with the upwardly mobile of society and we were no strangers to the occasional red-eye flight that took us half way across the world. As an open-minded parent, I did my best to be progressive in my parenting.

Hardly had we settled into our new home, when the first shock of my daughter’s school report hit. The bottom line – my daughter was relatively timid, lacking in sufficient independent thought, initiative and generally lacked a firm grasp of critical educational principles. In a state of shock, I took a very quick, but painful decision to repeat her school year, allowing her the space she needed to adapt and catch up. My decision paid off as she flourished within months.

My own year at school was no trip in the park; I struggled to break free, both from a mindset and a clear gap in my education on many levels. As my elasticity was tested, I experienced sensory overload, sometimes manifesting in extreme physical discomfort.

I come from a country and continent that was once colonized. The colonial masters did leave, but not with everything. Key; was structured education, as we know it. As dutiful servants, we have carried on the culture in relative purity. Indeed, I dare say that the masters would be surprised at our demonstrated faithfulness, for even they have veered off track, recognizing the need to, in some cases, move on. The Educational institutions of our ‘masters’ welcome and encourage change; cherishing the past, but understanding that it only exist to give us grounding into the future. For as there cannot be a future without a past, a past without a future will ultimately lead to extinction. Therein lays the secrets to man’s progress.

The British are particularly great at preserving traditions. Within this tradition is a class system, beautifully represented by her majesty the queen, who we deservedly pay homage to. Let me here hasten to add that I was recently delighted when her majesty supposedly sent out her first tweet!

Colonization was built on the bedrock of the class system; so intricately crafted, that it has the ability to perpetuate itself, even in the absence of the master. Ghana has been ‘independent’ since 1957.

The British had one goal when they colonized; to keep the colonized, colonized. They have done a very good job. We have therefore faithfully failed to think independently. Failing to adapt our education, in a very fast changing world. Subsequently, the education in almost all African countries, lack attributes of independent thought, creativity etc., things that ultimately lead to inventions, the sciences, entrepreneurship; the confidence to explore and question, and the permission to fail honorably. Our colonial masters left a long time ago, but the proxy masters… Alas! Those who benefit from the status-quo, the stand-in masters, prefer to keep it just the way it is. Victims higher up the food chain.

In 2015, the universities will not adapt what they teach to the job market; insisting on teaching outdated curricula, and in some instances, using books that are no longer in print. The resulting gaps in what the job market wants and the skills sets of graduates is alarming, inflaming the already testy job market. My country suffers from a youth unemployment rate of over 60%, social structures are breaking down, leadership is confused, corruption is rapt; Work ethic and attitude is at its worst and inventions are relatively non-existent.

I just recently sat down with two same-aged nephews in different parts of the globe. Both aged 5. It was all I could do not to cry. We absolutely will continue to be slaves, for the next generation is already doomed. The chasm seems so insurmountable, Words fail me… words fail me

Ghanaians are smart people. Ghanaians continue to excel all over the world, even under the most trying conditions and with the worst of starts. Recently a gentleman of Ghanaian decent, preparing to go to college, was accepted in all the major ivy leagues schools in the United States. Such a feat it was, that it was covered on prime-time television. This and other cases, continue to prove, that indeed, this may be a case of nurture and not nature.

In the meantime, in the land of the purposeless, a new threat looms. Groups like ISIS have sniffed the hopelessness that engulfs our youth, and like vultures that feed on carcass, they circle our shores, licking lips shimmering with spit…


Tanzania: Vote With Conscience This Election Year

CCM neglected its voters for way too long. The tears and pain of neglect is compelling voters to reject the status quo in order to usher a new dawn. A dawn unto which things are done differently. Now is the time to end business as usual. Time to chart a new cause. The peope will rise with clarity this election year.

The “Go Away CCM” is a mainstream movement that has gained significant support within our majority and the momentum to occupy Magogoni, has just started. The words of learned people like Balozi Mwapachu are an indication of things yet to come. With slogans like “Hakuna haja ya ramli mwaka huu, UKAWA watashinda,” it is indeed promising.

Over the next two month the majority after being kept in the fringes for far too long, will rise up and reject CCM for undermining Tanzania’s future. Please do join hands in support of CHANGE.  Change for Tanzania to begin the healing process. Healing from the scars tattooed on us because of CCM.  It is true that, change has taken too long arrive.

Living under CCM has been a nightmare to farmers—each year wanakukopa mazao yako. And, then they don’t pay you back in time for the next farming season. Ask korosho farmers in Mtwara, Beans and Maize farmers in Morogoro and Rukwa, Cotton farmers in Mwanza and Tabora, Tumbaku farmers in Tabora, Kahawa farmers in Mbeya, Kilimanjaro, and Kagera? They will tell you exactly how it feels to toil for a whole year and at the end not receiving a pay for your hard work. That is CCM in a nutshell.

Living under CCM has been a nightmare to students—-each year students are seating on the floor and do not have any books to read. Each year students fights for their education loans. Ask pupils how it feels to seat on the ground the entire year trying to get an education? Yes. That is CCM to you.

Living under CCM has been a nightmare to Magufuri——Did you hear Magufuri campaigning against his own party? That is CCM to you.

Living under CCM has been a nightmare to workers—-each year the dream of a retirement is being being pushed to the fringes. It is almost impossible for workers to dream for a retirement after working honorably for 30 plus years in the government. It has been tax rise after tax rise with no services in return. Hivi kweli haujachoka kuoga maji ya kujipiga makofi miaka nenda miaka rudi? Ukienda hospitali hakuna dawa….wala vitanda vya kulaza wagonjwa. That is CCM to you.

So what to do?

Vote with conscience.

————Ask UKAWA to be honest with you about your own issues.

————Teachers why don’t you ask Lowassa to promise you, once he wins, he will concentrate on solving your problems first (pay raises, housing, career advancements, etc).

————Tanzanians why don’t you ask UKAWA to promise in complete terms that once they have your votes, KATIBA BORA will be the first thing on their table.

The Way Forward.

Start Forming interest groups to follow up on issues that affect you and your community. Politicians needs to be made aware that, we ain’t kidding with our votes this time around.

The main reason we have governments in the first place is so that they can provide social services that will otherwise be too expensive to provide to ourselves in an individual basis.

The VARK Learning Theory

VARK is an acronym that stands for visual, audial/aural, read/write, and kinesthetic (Fleming & Mills, 1992; Fleming & Baume (2007). The VARK Learning Style Inventory categorizes students’ into one of these four categories based on how they prefer to receive and deliver information (Lang, 2004). Students who are capable of using more than one learning style equally well are categorized as multi-modal learners (Fleming & Mills, 1992). The VARK Learning Style Questionnaire consists of 16 questions and the highest score received in each category determines a student’s learning style.
According to Nilson (2010) the VARK was developed by Fleming and Mills as a framework that reflects the preferred physical sense of learners during intake and putting out information. The VARK model is an expansion of the VAK model, however, VARK further differentiate the visual category into graphical and textual or visual and read/write learners (Murphy, Gray, Straja & Bogert , 2004). The VARK was the first model to systematically use a series of question with help sheets for students, teachers, and employers in order to classify individuals’ preferred way of taking in or giving out information (Fleming & Baume, 2006). The four categories of The VARK Learning Style Inventory are summarized in Table 2.
According to Fleming (2006) and Fleming and Baume (2007) and Drago and Wagner (2004) visual learners prefer to use materials such as charts, graphs, and other symbols to take in and give out information. For these learners, sight is very important especially when taking information in and when organizing ideas. They tend to use colors and highlighters when processing information and the use of diagrams, drawing, and/or recall through pictures to reinforce information and idea intake is recommended. The read and write learners prefer to learn from printed textual learning materials. They tend to use lists, headings, dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, handouts, textbooks, and lecture notes during taking in and giving out information or ideas (Fleming, 2006). Aural leaners on the other hand, prefer to learn through spoken words lessons, talking, debate, and discussions. They tend to understand more when information is explained to them. They learn best through lectures, tutorials, debates, and discussions (Fleming, 2006; Tennent, Becker & Keho, 2005). Kinesthetic learners prefer to learn through direct practice, hands-on activities, and learning by doing (Fleming, 2006). These learners are commonly referred to as “hands on learners”. They learn best through activities such as field trips, tours, field immersion experiences, apprenticeship and activities where they can engage all senses when taking in and giving out ideas or information (Ramayah, Sivanandan, Nasrijal, Letchumanan & Leog (2009). Finally, multimodal learners are students whole learning is based on more than one style. These learners take longer to gather and process information but tend to have a deeper and broader understanding of the information presented (Fleming, 2006). Multimodal learners can be further classified into bi model (VR, VK, AR, AK, AV, KR), tri model (VAK, VAR, VRK, and ARK) and quad model (VARK).
Literature Review of Studies that Used the VARK Questionnaire to Identify Learning Styles
French, Cosgriff, and Brown (2007) examined the learning styles of 120 occupational therapy students at La Trobe University using the VARK questionnaire. Of the 120 students, 33% were kinesthetic learners, 18.1% were quadmodal (where visual or aural learners were the majority, followed by bimodal, and tri-modal was the least learning style of preference for the occupational therapy students. Rathnakar et al. (2014) investigated learning styles of undergraduate medical students using the VARK questionnaire and the influence of sex and academic performance. Four hundred and fifteen second year medical students belonging to two batches participated in the study. Study results showed that 68.7% of participants were multi-modal. The predominant sensory modality was aural (45.5%), followed by kinesthetic with 33.1%. The study also found out that learning preference was not influenced by either sex or prior academic performance. A study by Meehan-Andrews (2009) examined the learning styles of first year health science students to find out the benefits that students received from each teaching strategy. The VARK questionnaire was used in this study to identify student learning style preference. The results indicated that the majority of students were unimodal (54%). Among the unimodal learners, 7% were visual learners, 3% were aural learners, 10% were Read/Write learners and 36% were kinesthetic. The other 46% were multi-modal learners, with 20% bimodal learners, 10% tri-modal, and 16% quadmodal. Finally, a study by Lincoln et al. (2006) investigated the learning styles of adult English as a second language (ESL) students in Northwest Arkansas using the VARK learning style questionnaire. A total of 69 students from 17 different countries participated in the study. The study found out that one third of participants preferred Read/Write learning style. The remaining participants, 17% were multi-modal learners, 4% visual learners, 25% kinesthetic learners, and 20% aural learners.

Validity and Reliability of the VARK learning style questionnaire.
Usability features of the VARK model were investigated by Wehrwein et al (2007). The researchers concluded that the VARK model encourages teachers to be aware of students’ differences before making decisions about what teaching strategies should be used to teach them, supports the idea of matching teaching methods and students preferences, encourages educators to use a variety of teaching strategies and assessment techniques, encourages educators to redesign resources and educational environments, and provides an opportunity for students to talk about their learning style with their teachers. However, the researchers noted that validity and reliability of VARK Questionnaire has not yet been fully verified. A study by Boatman,
Courtney, and Lee (2008) identified a few studies that have evaluated the quality of the VARK Questionnaire. Some of the limitation associated with the VARKs validity and reliability are discussed by Breckler, Joun and Ngo (2008) who proposed that the VARK questionnaire is not a complete inventory as it supplies the users with a simple profile of their sensory learning preferences. Another study by Leite, Svinicki, and Shi (2009) concluded that “researchers using the VARK should proceed with caution because the use and proposed interpretation of VARK scores have not yet received a comprehensive validation” (p. 15).

Boatman, K., Coatney, R., & Lee, W. (2008). See how they learn: the impact of faculty and student learning styles on student performance in introductory economics. The American Economist, 52(1), 39-48.
Breckler, J., Joun, D. & Ngo, H. (2008). Learning styles of physiology students interested in health professions, Advances in Physiology Education, 33(4), 30-36.
Drago, W., & Wagner, R. (2004). Vark preferred learning styles and online education.
Management Research News, 27(7), 1-13.
Fleming, N. (2005). I am different; not dumb. Modes of presentation (VARK) in the tertiary classroom. In A. Zelmer & L. Zelmer. (Eds). Research and development in the higher education, proceedings of the 1995 annual conference of the higher education and research development society of Australasia (HERDSA), HERDASA, 18 308-313.
Fleming, N. (2006). Teaching and Learning Styles VARK strategies. Christchurch, New Zealand: Neil D. Fleming.
Fleming, D., & Baume, D. (2007). Learning styles again: VARKing up the right tree! Educational Development, SEDA Ltd, 6(4), 4-7.
French, G., Cosgriff, T., & Brown, T. (2007). Learning style preferences of Australian occupation therapy students. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 54, 58-65.
Lang, C., Wong, L., & Fraser, J. (2005). Student perceptions of chemistry laboratory learning environments, student—teacher interactions and attitudes in secondary school gifted education in Singapore. Research in Science Education,35, 299-321.
Leite, W. L., Svinicki, M., & Shi, Y. (2010). Attempted validation of the scores of the VARK: Learning style inventory with multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis models. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70, 323-339.
Meehan-Andrews, T. (2009). Teaching mode efficiency and learning preferences of first
year nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 29, 24-32.
Murphy, R., Gray, S., Straja, S., & Bogert, M. (2004). Student learning preferences and teaching implications. Journal of Dental Education, 68(8), 859-866.
Nilson, L. (2010). Teaching at its best: a research based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossy-Bass.
Ramayah, M., Sivanandan, L., Nasrijal, N. H., Letchumanan, T., Leong, L. C. (2009).
Preferred learning style: gender influences of preferred learning style among business students. Journal of US-China Public Administration, 6(4), 65-78.
Rathnakar, P., Ashwin, K., Sheetal, U., Ashok, K., Nandita, S., & Laxminarayana, A. (2014). Assessment of learning styles of undergraduate medical students using the VARK Questionnaire and Influence of sex and academic performance. Advances in Physiology Education, 38(3), 216-220.
Tennent, B., Becker, K., & Kehoe, J. (2005). Technology-enabled delivery and assessment
methods: are we addressing student expectations and learning preferences?.
Proceedings Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education
(ASCILITE) pp 649-659, Brisban, Australia.
Wehrwin, E., Lujan, H., & DiCarlo, S. (2007). Gender differences in learning preferences among undergraduate physiology students. Advances in Physiology Education, 31, 153-175.

Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory

Kolb’s Learning Style Theory

Kolb’s Learning Style Theory is based on Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory. Experiential learning theory is influenced by the work of 20th century educational theorists such as John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget, Wiliam James, Carl Jung, Paulo Freire, Carl Rogers and many others who in one way or the other gave experience a central role in their theories regarding human development (Kolb, 1981, Kolb, 1984, Kolb & Kolb, 2005). Experiential learning theory (ELT) defines learning as “the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience” (Kolb, 1984, p. 41). The ELT model contains two dialectically related modes of grasping and transforming experience. The dialectically related modes for grasping experience are the Concrete Experience (CE) and Abstract Experience (AE) and the dialectically related modes of transforming experience are the Reflective Observation (RO) and the Active Observation (AE) (Kolb, 1984, Kolb & Kolb, 2005).
Kolb’s experiential learning style theory categorizes the learning cycle into four stages (concrete experience, abstract experience, reflective observation, and active observation), each its own individual learning style preference (Kolb, 1984; Sirin & Guzel, 2006) and summarized in Figure 1. Concrete experience is the process whereby a learner learns through actively experiencing an activity. This is sometimes referred to as learning through hands-on experience. Reflective observation is the process whereby a learner learns through conscious reflection about the activity. Abstract conceptualization on the other hand referrers to the learning process where by a learner learns by being presented with a theory or a model that has to be observed. Finally, active observation referrers to the process whereby the learner learns through testing a theory or a model. According to Kolb and Kolb (2005), experiential learning can be referred to as a “process of constructing knowledge that involves a creative tension among the four learning modes that is responsive to textual demand” (p. 194). Thus in ELT learning follows the learning cycle- the learner experience the phenomenon, reflect on it, think about it, and finally the learner acts on the distilled abstract concepts in a recursive process that is responsive to the situation and the phenomenon being learned (Kolb & Kolb, 2005).
The Kolb learning style theory has identified four types of learners. These are: 1. Divergers, 2. Assimilators, 3. Convergers, and 4. Accommodators. Dorney (2005) described the four types of learners as either exhibiting an only one type of the learning styles (pure) or exhibiting a combination of the four types (extreme cases). Kolb and Kolb (2005) describes divergers as learners having CE and RO as their dominant learning abilities. Learners with this learning style have a greater ability of viewing concrete situations in many diversified points of views. Individuals with the diverging learning style performs better is situations such as brainstorming sessions where ideas are generated. Divergers have interest in people and culture. They tends to be imaginative, emotional, with broad cultural interest and tend to specialize in the arts. During formal learning activities, individuals with diverging learning style prefers to work in groups, listens openly and like to receive personalized feedback. On the other hand, learners with the assimilating learning style have AC and RO as their dominant learning abilities. Assimilators are best at developing concise and logical pattern of information from a wide ranging source of unrelated information. They are less focused on people and culture, however, they are heavily interested in ideas and abstract concepts (Kolb &Kolb, 2005, Rusian, 2005). Assimilators places more value on the soundness of theories rather than practicability. They are a very important group of learners especially in information and science careers. In formal learning activities, assimilators prefers to receive information through reading, lectures, and exploring models. They enjoy having time to think things through.
Learners with a converging learning style have AC and AE as dominant learning abilities. Convergers functions really well at finding practical solutions to ideas and theories. Persons with the converging style prefer to solve technical problems rather than solving social and interpersonal problems. They are an important group of learners in bringing effectiveness in specialists and technology careers. During formal learning activities, convergers prefer to experiment with new ideas through experimentation, simulations, and practical application (Danish et al. 2009, Kolb &Kolb, 2005, Rusian, 2005). Lastly, learners with the accommodating style have CE and AE as their dominant learning abilities. They learn best from hands-on experience. Accomodators rely more heavily on other people for information, analysis, and solving problems rather than relying on themselves or their own technical analysis. They are a very important group of learners especially for bringing effectiveness in action oriented careers such as marketing, teaching, and sales. During formal learning activities, accommodators prefer to work with others to get their work done. They are more action oriented than thinking oriented (Danish et al. 2009, Russian, 2005)
Criticisms of Kolb’s Learning Theory
Despite of the wide use of Kolb’s learning style inventory in education, there are still many criticisms leveled at the theory. Coffield et al. (2004) points out the following flaws: 1) Reliability of the instrument (Learning Style Inventory) is still contested and unresolved, 2) validity of the learning style inventory is still contested and unsettled, (3) there is no evidence that support matching improves academic performance in further education, and lastly, (4) the notion of learning cycles may be problematic as it does not account for all individuals’ information processing preferences. Furthermore, the research on the fluid nature (flexible stable) of learning styles remains both confusing and confused (Robotham, 1999).
A Review of the Studies Conducted Based on the Kolb Learning Theory
Many studies have been conducted based on the Kolb learning style theory. SoyLu –Yilmaz & AkkoyunLu (2009) examined the effect of learning styles on achievement in different learning environments. Thirty nine college level students in an education and instructional technology undergraduate program in Turkey participated in the study. The study used Kolb’s learning style inventory to identify students’ learning styles. For this study, students were categorized into two learning styles: 18 students (53%) were identifies as identified as divergers and 16 students (47%) were identified as assimilators. In other words, students fell into either the diverger group or the assimilator group. The study found no significant difference between instructional strategies in a computer- mediated environment (narrative + music + text + static pictures). Furthermore, In addition, there was no significant change in student achievement when students’ learning style was matched with the instructional strategies (p = .53). Raksasuk (2000) examined the effects of matching learning styles with participatory interaction modes on student achievement among 195 first year students attending a web-based instructional course on library and information science in Thailand. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory was used to identify students’ learning styles in this study. Of the 195 students, 66 were identified as assimilators, 44 were identified as accommodators, 55 were divergers, and 40 were convergers. Raksasuk found no significant effect in the amount of information learned when instruction was matched to students’ learning styles preference.
Another study by Tulbure (2012), compared two groups of pre-service teachers (with educational sciences (N= 85) and economic sciences major (N = 97) to in order to identify their learning style preferences, the most effective teaching strategies for each learning style and some possible differences between their academic achievement. A total of 182 students participated in the study. The study used Kolb’s learning style inventory to identify student learning styles. Four types of learning styles were identified. For the educational major group, 31% were assimilators (N = 26), 28% were divergers (N = 24), 23% were convergers (N = 20), while only 18% (N = 15) were classified as accommodators (N = 15). For the economic major group, 36% were identified as convergers (N = 36), 25% were identified as assimilators (N = 24), 20% as divergers (N = 19), and 19% as accommodators (N = 18). The results were as follows: Convergers showed statistically significant results with cooperative learning, investigation, and problem solving. Divergers showed statistically significant results when cooperative learning and investigations are used as instructional strategies. Accommodators showed statistically significant results when investigation, debate, and problem solving instructional strategies were used. Assimilators showed statistically significant results when only when problem solving was used.
Bhatti and Bart (2013) examined the effect of learning style on scholastic achievement. One hundred and ninety three undergraduate students studying social science at a Division I Research University participated in the study. Kolb’s learning style inventory was used to identify students’ learning styles. Of the 193 students, 28 were identified as convergent, 49 divergent, 76 assimilators, and 40 accommodator. The major findings of the study was that the dominant learning style was assimilator and that gender and learning styles influenced student achievement. Another study by Smith (2010) investigated the learning style preferences among licensed nurses who were enrolled in a course. The study used Kolb’s learning style inventory to identify the nurses learning styles. The majority of the nurses were identified as accommodators (31%), followed by assimilators and divergers (20%), and the least preferred learning style was convergent (19%).
In summary, Kolb’s learning style theory proposes four types of learners. These are: accommodators, divergers, convergers, and assimilators. Research using this model has identified convergers as the common learning style. However, in my literature review, the discipline seems to determine what the common learning style would be. For example, assimilators dominated the learning style landscape for the social science study, in the nursing field study, accommodators were the majority, and in the economic sciences major group, divergers were the majority. The convergent learner found in this theory is closely aligned to the kinesthetic learner on the VARK theory. However, the Kolb’s learning style inventory is mainly used to identify adults learning styles rather than children as the VARK theory does.

Figure 1. Kolb’s learning experiential model and four learning styles


Bhatti, R., & Bart, W. (2013). On the effect of learning styles on the scholastic achievement. Current Issues in Education, 16(2), 1-6.
Coffield, F., Mosley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Should we be using learning styles? What research has to say to practice? London, Learning and Skills Development Agency.
Danish, K., & Awan, A. (2009). Learning styles learners and their career choice. Professional Med Journal, 16(2), 162-168.
Kolb. D. (1981). Experiential Learning theory and the learning style inventory: a reply to freedman and stumpf. Academy of Management Review, 6(2), 286-296.
Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning theory and the learning style inventory: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kolb, A., & Kolb, D. (2005). Learning style and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4(2), 193-212.
Raksasuk, Norumol (2000). Effect of learning style and participatory interaction modes on achievement of Thai students involved in web based instruction in library and information science distance education. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.
Robotham, D. (1999). The application of learning theory in higher education teaching. Unpublished article, Wolverhampton Bussiness School, Wolverhampton, UK.
Russian, C. (2005). Preferred learning styles of respiratory care student at Texas University-San Marcos. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 3(4), 1-6.
Sirin, A., & Guzel, A. (2006). The relationship between learning styles and problem solving among college students. Education Sceinces: Theory and Practice, 6(1), 255-264.
SoyLu –Yilmaz, M. & AkkoyunLu, B. (2009). The effect of learning styles on achievement in different learning environments. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 8(4): 43-50.
Smith, A. (2010). Learning styles of registered nurses enrolled in an online nursing program. Journal of Professional Nursing, 26(1), 49-53.
Tulbure, C. (2012). Investigating the relationship between teaching strategies and learning styles in higher education. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 5(1): 65-74.

Help find a home and family members for the kids

Blogsphere Family, I am searching for anyone who knew an American man (white) named Dean Edward Erwin and a Tanzanian woman called Rehema Sanga. Mr. Erwin died in Arusha, Tanzania in 2011. He was married to Rehema Sanga. Together, they had three  beautiful children. After the death of Mr. Erwin the mother become mentally ill and no one knows her whereabouts. If you know Dean Edward Erwin family in America or Rehema Sanga’s family, please notify them that the couple’s children were found wondering and begging for food in Chang’ombe, Temeke, Dar Es salaam, Tanzania. Deep down I know there are aunts. auncles, grandmas, and grandpas, both in Tanzania and the United States who could care for, give love, and  provide a home for these children. The children are at Honoratta’s orphanage in Dar Es Salaam. You can reach the orphanage at 011-255- 712-401-818 or 011-255-759-401-818. Please donate food, money or mosquito nets to help the kids or you can just visit them to offer support. Thanks.Help Find A Home for the Kids

A Survey of the Literature on Factors affecting learning Style preferences of the Learner

A Survey of the Literature on Factors affecting learning Style preferences of the Learner

Previous studies have indicated that gender, age, and cultural heritage affects the learners’ learning style (Charlesworth, 2008; De Vita, 2010, Joy & Dunn, 2008; Song & Oh, 2011). Studies have also documented that learning styles are affected by other factors Griggs and Dunn (1998). Thus, factors such as these needs to be considered when identifying learning style preferences of the student as they may influence learning outcomes.

Learning Style and Culture

The influence that culture has on the learning style preference of the learner has been studied and documented in numerous studies. In one study, Song and Oh (2011) conducted a study to examine the learning style preferences of learners who have diverse cultural backgrounds in an online language learning environment. The researchers utilized the Felder and Silverman Learning Style Model to identify students’ learning style preferences. A total of 65 international students enrolled in a Korean language course at a university’s language institute in Seoul, Korea participated in the study. Study participants were culturally diverse representing six cultural clusters: China, Middle East, Europe, Japan, America, and other Asia. The online language course was analyzed using the active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, sequential/global, visual/verbal dimensions of the Felder and Silverman model.  Results indicated significant cultural group differences in the learning style preferences of the learners of Korean language. Song and Oh noted that it is critical to analyze learning styles based on cultural backgrounds of the learners when designing successful online learning courses. In another study, Joy and Kolb (2009) investigated the role that culture plays in way that individuals learn. Experiential learning theory was used as a lens while conducting this study. Kolb’s learning style inventory was utilized to identify students’ learning style preferences. The researchers also used the framework for categorizing cultural differences from the Global Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness (GLOBE) study, to categorize national cultures and individual cultural dimensions. A total 533 respondents residing in seven different nations participated in the study. The findings indicated that the influence of culture on learning styles of the learner was a marginally significant. Furthermore, the researchers also found that individuals tended to have abstract learning style in countries that are high in group collectivism, institutional collectivism, and uncertainty avoidance. The researchers concluded that individuals’ cultural background tend to influence their learning style. Thus, educators need to keep cultural background in mind while designing instruction for their learners.

Charlesworth (2008) examined the relationship between learning style and culture. Honey and Mumford learning style questionnaire was used to identify students’ learning style preferences into reflectors, activists, theorists and pragmatists. Forty one Chinese students, 34 Indonesians students, and 38 French students participated in the study. To ascertain if differences between groups would larger than differences within groups, ANOVA was used. The result indicated statistically significant differences existed between learning styles of the learners classified as activists, reflectors, and pragmatists. Specifically, Indonesian students scored high on the reflector scale, Chinese students scored high on the theorists scale, and French students scored high on the pragmatist scale. Thus, cultural backgrounds affect students’ learning styles and needs to be considered while designing and delivering instruction. In another study, Jia-Ying (2011) explored the influence of cultural background differences on students’ second language/foreign language learning styles. The study focused was to compare these differences between East and Western classroom cultures. A total of 20 graduate students pursuing graduate degrees in the U.S. from China, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea were interviewed for this study.  The evidence from the study revealed that East Asian students adhere to the Confucian traditions and collectivists values. These values affects how students and their teachers interact. Thus, understanding these cultural norms and values is crucial in order for educators to be effective students from different cultures. De Vita (2010) conducted a study to investigate the learning style profiles exhibited by in multi-cultural class of international business management and how cultural influences are reflected on learning style preferences of native and foreign students. The Felder and Solomon Index of learning style was used to identify students’ learning styles. The findings of study suggests that greater variation of learning preferences do exist in multicultural cohorts. Thus, multi-style teaching strategies are recommended to in-order reach all the diverse learners in the course.

In summary, previous studies reveals the influence of culture on learning style preferences of the learner in a multitude of context. Thus, it is advisable to use different type of instructional materials and teaching strategies in order to reach the different type of learners in our multicultural classrooms.

Learning style and age

Age plays a big role on how individuals prefers to receive and give out information. Many studies have shown a relationship between age and learning style preferences of the learner. Cornu (1999) investigated the relationship between learning style, gender, and age amongst students of theology. A questionnaire focusing on contextual examples of global and analytical learning styles was used to identify student learning style preferences. Two batches of students taking theological education participated in the study. The researcher found no significant correlation between learning styles and gender, however, a significant correlation was found between learning style and age. A study by Honingsfeld and Dunn (2003) examined learning style characteristics of 1637 adolescents from five different countries. The Dunn and Dunn learning style inventory was used to identify students learning characteristics. Participants were divided into three groups: 13, 15, 17 years old groups. The evidence indicated a significant difference existed for 16 of the 22 learning style characteristics amongst the three age groups. In another study, Chan (2001) investigated learning styles of 398 gifted and non-gifted Chinese secondary school students. During the study, students were grouped into two groups: 11-13 year olds and 14 – 19 year olds. The result indicated a significant interaction effect between the younger group and learning styles. Chan argued that younger student interacted more with structured activities and games.

In another study, Lincoln et al. (2006) investigated relationship between age and the VARK learning style preferences among student enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) courses. A total of 69 students from 17 countries participated in the study. The age groups of participants ranged from late teens to 40s. The result showed a low positive correlation between age and the read/write learning style among all participants (r = 0.197). The results also showed a small negative correlation between age and kinesthetic learning style (r = -0. 32) for male students. Hlawaty (2008) examined the relationship between age and learning style preferences of German students. Hlawaty used the Dunn and Dunn learning style inventory to identify students’ learning styles. The participants were grouped into three main age groups: 13, 15, and 17 year olds. MANOVA result indicated significant differences among all three pair wise comparison of age groups. The researcher noted that each age group has unique learning requirements and concluded that learning demands vary by age of the student. Barun, Schaller, Chambers, and Allisson-Bunnell (2010) investigated the implication of learning style, gender, and age groups for developing online learning activities. The Kolb’s learning style theory was used as a lens in examining responses of online learners to five types of educational activities. Results showed that learning style influences preferences of learning activity. The researchers found a stronger relationship between learning styles and age among adults than among children aged 10- 13 (middle school age).

Despite all these studies indicating a relationship between ages and learning style preferences of the learners, other studies found no existence of a relationship between age and learning styles. Li, Chen, Yang, and Liu (2010) investigated the relationship between age and learning style among students in different nursing programs in Taiwan. The Chinese version of the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used to identify students learning style preferences in the four dichotomous of the Jungian theory.  The dichotomous include: extraversion/introversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving.  A total of 331 student participated in the study. The data showed that the most common learning styles were introversion, sensing, thinking, and judging. In addition, the finding also indicated that student age was not significantly related to their learning styles. Seiler (2011) investigated the relationship between age and learning style of adult learners in an online environment. Kolb’s learning style inventory was used to identify students learning styles. A total of 142 students completed Kolb’s learning style survey. The findings indicated a no significant relationship between age and learning styles of learners.  Finally, a study by Adesunloye, Aladesunmi, Henriques-Forsythe and Ivonye (2008) investigated the preferred learning styles of medical student residents and faculty at Morehouse University. The Kolb learning style inventory was used to identify students learning style preferences. A total of 42 participants participated in the study with age ranging from 20 to 59 years old. The study findings showed that there was no relationship between age and learning of the participant.

In summary, the data on the relationship between learning style and age is clearly mix. Some studies in the reviewed literature indicate evidence and support the link between learning style and age, while, other studies shows the lack of evidence to support the link between learning style and age. All in all, classroom instruction needs to take into account learning styles and age differences of the students to maximize learning.

Learning Style and gender/sex.

It is known that males and females learn differently. Numerous learning style preference studies have found a link between gender and preferred styles of learning between the two genders. Raddon (2007) argues that gender is one among many variables considered in learning style studies. Wehrwein, Lujan, and DiCarlo (2007) investigated gender differences in learning style preferences among undergraduate physiology students. The VARK questionnaire was administered to identify undergraduate physiology major learning styles. The students were enrolled in a capstone physiology laboratory at Michigan State University. 86 students participated in the study, however, only 48 students who returned the questionnaire volunteered information their gender information (55.8%). The study found that 54.2% of female and 12.5% of male students preferred a single mode of information presentation. Among female students, 4.2% preferred visual learning style, 0% preferred audial, 16.7% preferred read/write (printed words), and 33.3% preferred hands-on activity to take in and give out information (kinesthetic). Male students had evenly distributed learning style preferences with 4.2% of the students preferring Audial, read/write, and kinesthetic, respectively, while 0% male students preferred the visual mode.

In another study, Dobson (2009) compared student perceived and assessed learning style preferences and examined the relationship between learning styles preferences, sex, and academic performance. A total of 64 students participated in the study, of which 50 were undergraduate students and 14 were graduate students (40 women and 24 men). The researcher found that in the perceived sensory modality data, respondent disproportionally chose visual modality (36%), followed by read/write (28%), kinesthetic (18%) and audial (17%).  In the assessed sensory modality preference, respondents were classified as VARK (37%), followed by read/write (14%), AK (11%), K (8%), VK (6%), ARK (6%), A (5%), VAK (3%), RK (3%), V (2%), AR (2%), and VRK (2%). The researcher also found that there was a nearly significant relationship between sex and perceived sensory modality preference (x2 = 7.18, p = 0.06) and between sex and assessed sensory modality (x2 = 17.36, p = 0.09). However, there was a significant difference relationship between perceived sensory modality preference and academic performance (p = 0.06 by ANOVA).

In another study, Park (1997a) investigated if there were differences between the learning styles of Mexican, Armenia – American, Korean, and Anglo American students. One thousand two hundred eighty three students from 10 high schools in the U.S. participated in the study. The findings from the study indicated that there were differences in learning style preferences between male and female students across the four ethnic groups. Females showed a greater preference to kinesthetic learning style, while males showed a preference to a tactile mode of information presentation. Bernades and Hanna (2009) examined learning style preferences of students in an operations management course. The adult version of the VARK questionnaire was used to identify students learning styles. The researchers found no percent differences between male and female students’ mode of sensory preferences for the unimodal and multimodal learning styles. However, female students significantly preferred multimodal learning styles, whereas, male students significantly preferred a unimodal learning style. Furthermore, Lu and Chiou (2010) conducted a study to examine if gender affects quality of learning through E- leaning by ensuring learning styles of students were satisfactorily met with instructional materials. A total of 353 male and 169 female students from Northern Taiwan University enrolled in online courses participated in the study. Kolb’s learning style inventory was used to identify student learning style preferences. The researchers found a direct and positive relationship between gender and learning style.

In another study, Johnston (1997) examined the learning style preferences of physical education majors and analyzed differences in learning styles. A total of 64 male and 18 female physical education majors participated in the study. The study was conducted at a university in the Southeast of the United States. The Canfield learning style inventory (1988) was used to identify students learning style preferences. The result indicated that both males and females students vary from the norm on learning style preferences. In another study, Honigsfeld and Dunn (2006) investigated gender differences among the learning styles of 1637 adolescents from five countries – Bermuda, Brunei, Hungary, Sweden, and New Zealand. Student learning style preferences were identified using the English or appropriate foreign language (Hungarian, Malay, and Swedish) versions of the learning style inventory (LSI). The result showed significant main effects for gender with medium effect sizes and statistically significant and large effect sizes for country main effects. In addition, there were statistically significant and medium effect sizes for interactions of country by gender.

However, some studies investigating the link between learning styles and gender showed no relationship existed between the two variables. Al-Saud (2013) examined learning style preference of first-year dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saud Arabia: Influence of gender and GPA. A total of 113 students participated in the study, of which 42 were females and 71 were males. The VARK questionnaire was used to identify students learning styles. The researcher found that 59% of the students preferred multi-modes of information presentation. The most common single mode preference was aural (20%), followed by kinesthetic (15.2%). The researcher found out that gender differences was not statistically significant. Urval, Kamath, Ullal, Shenoy, and Udupa (2014) investigated learning styles of undergraduate medical students using the VARK questionnaire and the influence of sex and academic performance. A total of 415 students participated in the study.  The VARK questionnaire was used to identify students learning styles. In addition, demographic data and self-perceived learning style preferences were also collected. The researchers found that the majority of the students had multiple learning style preferences (68.7%). Aural learning style was the predominant single learning style modality (45.5%) followed by kinesthetic at (33.1%). The researchers also found out that gender and previous academic performance did not have any influence of student learning styles preference. Negari and Barghi (2014) explored Iranian EFL learners’ learning style preferences and the role of gender in their learning styles. Ninety EFL learners participated in the study. The participant were from Sistan University, Baluchestan University, and Azad University of Zahedan. The Willing’s learning style questionnaire was used to identify students’ learning style preferences. The result indicated no significant difference between male and female learners’ learning style preferences

In summary, there is a conflict in the published evidence. The research on learning styles preference and gender differences is inconclusive. . In some studies the majority of male students preferred multiple modes of information presentation whereas in other studies female students preferred single mode of information presentation. In some studies a significant difference did exist between how females and male students prefers to take in and give out information. However, in other studies no significant differences between gender and learning styles preferences was found. Thus, educators needs to be aware of the conflicting findings on the research on gender and learning styles. This will help them to design and deliver information to students during instruction in a manner that is compatible to their learning style preference. Broadening and/or using multiple informational presentation styles can help create a more positive and effective environmental for students of all genders to learn. Thus, it is paramount for students and teachers to know student learning styles in order to improve teaching and learning.


Adesunloye, B., Aladesunmi, O.,  Henriques-Forsythe, M.,  & Ivonye, C. (2008). The preferred learning styles among residents and faculty members of an internal medicine residency program. Journal of the National Medical Association, 100(2), 172-175.

Al-Saud, M. (2013). Learning style preferences of first-year dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Influence of gender and GPA. Journal of Dental Education, 77(10), 1371-1378.

Barun, M., Schaller, D., Chambers, M. & Allison-Bunnell (2010). Implications of learning style, age group, and gender for developing online activities. Visitor Studies, 13(2), 149-152.

Bernades, E., & Hanna, M. (2009). How do management students prefer to learn? Why should we care? International Journal for Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(1), 1-12.

Chan, D. (2001). Learning styles of gifted and non-gifted secondary students in Hong Kong. Gifted Child Quarterly, 45(1), 35-44.

Charlesworth, Z. (2008). Learning styles across cultures: Suggestions for educators. Education & Training, 50(2), 155-127.

Cornu, A. (1999). Learning styles, gender, and age as influential issues amongst Theology student. Journal of Beliefs and values: Studies in Religion and Education, 20(1), 110-114.

De Vita, G. (2010). Learning style, culture, and inclusive instruction in the multicultural classroom: A business and management perspective. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 38(2), 165-174.

Dobson, J. (2009). Learning preferences and course performance in an undergraduate physiology class. Journal of Advances in Physiology Education, 33, 308-314.

Johnston, B. (1997). Learning style preferences of physical education majors. Physical Educator. 54, 31-34.

Hlawaty, H. (2008). A comparative analysis of learning styles of German adolescents by age, gender, and academic achievement level. European Education, 40(4), 23-25.

Honingsfeld, A., & Dunn, R. (2003). High school male and female learning similarities and differences diverse nations. The Journal of Education Research, 96(4), 195-206.

Jia-Ying, L. (2011). English learning styles of East Asian Countries: A focus on reading strategies. International Education Studies, 4(2), 74-81.

Joy, S., & Kolb, D. (2009). Are there cultural differences in learning styles? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(2), 69-85.

Li, Y., Chen, H., Yang, B., & Liu, C. (2010). An exploratory study of the relationship between age and learning styles among nursing students in different nursing programs in Taiwan.  Nursing Education Today, 31(1), 18-23.

Lincoln, F., & Rademacher, B. (2006). Learning styles of ESL in community colleges. Community Journal of Research and Practice, 30(5), 485-500.

Lu, H., & Chiou, M.  (2010). The impact of individual differences on e-learning system satisfaction: A contingency approach. British Journal of Education Technology, 41(2), 307-323.

Negari., G., & Barghi., E. (2014). An exploration of Iranian EFL learners’ learning style preferences. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods. 4(2), 17-24.

Park, C. (1997a). Learning style preferences of Korea, Mexican, Armenian-American, and Anglo students in secondary schools. NASSP Bulletin, 81, 103-111.

Raddon, A. (2007). Distance learners jugging home, work, and study. In P, Cotterill., S, Jackson., G, Letherby. (Eds.). Challenges and Negotiations for women in higher education (pp. 159-181). Dordrecht: The Netherlands: Springer.

Seiler, D. (2011). Age and learning styles of adult learners. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 7, 133-138.

Song, D., & Oh, E. (2011). Learning styles based on the different cultural backgrounds of the KFL learners in online learning. Multi-media Assisted Language Learning, 13(3), 133-154.

Urval, R., Kamath, A., Ullal, S., Shenoy, A., Shenoy, N., & Udupa, L. (2014). Assessment of learning styles of undergraduate medical students using the VARK questionnaire and the influence of sex and academic performance. Journal of Advances in Physiology Education, 38(3), 216-220.

Wehrwein, E., Lujan, H., & DiCarlo, S. (2007). Gender differences in learning style preferences among undergraduate physiology student. Journal of Advances in Physiology Education, 31, 153-175.

Facts About Albino Killings in Tanzania: Share Widely.

By Evans Bukuku,

Fact: There are people willing to pay up to Tsh 100 million for body parts of people with Albinism

Fact: There’s a spike in killings of people living with Albinism during political elections (both in Tanzania & neighboring countries).

Fact: The body of 1 year old Yohana Bahati was found just yesterday with legs and arms missing. She had been taken from her mother’s arms by force. Her mother is fighting for her life in hospital as I type. (I have been informed by the Executive Director of Under The Same Son that it does not look good).

Fact: It is election season in Tanzania. This killing will not end here. . . unless me and you do something and/or say something about this.

Myth: As an individual you can do nothing about the situation.

Note: We Can All Do Something to Stop Albino Killings in Tanzania

Stop Albino Killings in Tanzania. Spread the Word!

Stop Albino Killings in Tanzania. Spread the Word!